Recent Articles


Toward an intercultural approach to evaluation: A perspective from INEE in Mexico
Sylvia Schmelkes
The National Institute for the Evaluation of Education (INEE) in Mexico has begun to meet the challenges in evaluating indigenous children and teachers and the educational programs and policies targeted to them. Several evaluation projects are described in this paper. One is the “Previous, Free and Informed Consultation of Indigenous People,” which focuses on quality of education they receive....

Evaluation of teachers of basic education: Political tensions and radical oppositions
Maria de Ibarrola
This paper focuses upon the enactment and implementation of a National Educational Reform in Mexico, which introduced competitive examinations for teachers entering the newly established Professional Teaching Service of the National Educational System, and compulsory evaluation of all teachers in active service for promotion and tenure.  The analysis describes the (1) aims and intentions of...

Between Scylla and Charybdis: Reflections on and problems associated with the evaluation of teachers in an era of metrification
David C. Berliner
The Scylla and Charybdis in this discussion of teacher evaluation are standardized achievement test data on the one hand, and classroom observational systems on the other. These are the two most common methods used to judge teachers’ competency.  Both have serious flaws: the former primarily with validity, the latter primarily with reliability. At most these evaluation strategies provide...

Afterword: Key questions for thought and action
Lorin W. Anderson
In this summary article, six recommendations for the design, implementation, and interpretation of educational evaluations are presented and discussed. These recommendations are based on common “threads” that run through most, if not all, of the papers included in this special issue. The recommendations concern (1) the need for awareness of the political, societal, cultural, and economic...

Introduction to the special issue: Historical and contemporary perspectives on educational evaluation
Lorin W. Anderson, Maria de Ibarrola, D. C. Phillips
Most special issues on evaluation focus on one form or type of evaluation (e.g., program evaluation, personnel evaluation, and, increasingly, educational system evaluation. This special issue is unique in that there are papers on system evaluation, program evaluation, teacher evaluation, and student evaluation. Some papers are primarily conceptual, others are empirical, and still others are a...

The many functions of evaluation in education
D. C. Phillips
This paper focuses upon the many functions that are served by evaluations, and by the process of conducting them. Many forms or types of evaluation have evolved to serve these different functions; and a brief account is given of some of the most common of these forms and the issues or controversies that they have engendered. The discussion opens, after a brief historical note, by describing...

Perspectives on evaluation from curricular contexts
William Schubert
Educational issues in nations throughout the world center on teacher and student evaluation, leading to much consternation. The root of debate stretches to curriculum questions that directly address matters of worth or value. Examining evaluation of education at any level through curricular lenses increases its complexity. First, complexity is approached by focusing on three broad categories...

Methodological perspectives: Standardized (summative) or contextualized (formative) evaluation?
Richard J. Shavelson
A critical issue in educational evaluation is whether evaluations should focus on standardized (summative, often quantitative) or contextualized (formative or often qualitative) evidence. The author of this article advises readers to beware of false dichotomies. The big issue is not whether evaluations should be “standardized” or “contextualized” but rather whether the evidence collected...

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