The Distribution of Emergency Permit Teachers in California


  • Laura Goe University of California, Berkeley



Alternative Teacher Certification, Beginning Teachers, Elementary Secondary Education, Equal Education, State Legislation, Teacher Qualification


There is a significant negative relationship between the percentage of teachers on emergency permits and student achievement at the school level in California schools, after controlling for other student and school characteristics. Generally, the more emergency permit teachers there are in a school, the lower the school's achievement. This phenomenon is examined in the context of other contributors to student achievement such as socio-economic status and school size. The effects of teacher distribution and school selection as contributing factors are considered. In addition, policy and legislative initiatives related to emergency permit teachers that have been recently debated in California will be discussed. Finally, a set of initiatives is proposed that attempt to decrease the need for emergency permit teachers and ensure that those that must be hired due to shortage conditions have the support they need to become credentialed teachers.


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Author Biography

Laura Goe, University of California, Berkeley

Laura Goe is a Research Associate in Policy, Organizations, Measurement, and Evaluation at the Graduate School of Education at the University of California, Berkeley. Currently finishing her Ph.D., she holds a BA in Language and Learning Theory in Social Context from the University of California, San Diego, and an MS in Educational Policy and Leadership from the University of Memphis. A former special education teacher and English teacher, she began teaching on an emergency permit and was subsequently credentialed in two states. She is the Research Coordinator for the Bay Area Consortium for Urban Education (BACUE) and a Research Associate for Policy Analysis for California Education (PACE). Her dissertation is a mixed-methods longitudinal evaluation of the effects of California's Immediate Intervention/Underperforming Schools Program (II/USP) on middle schools. Other research interests include equity, school finance, assessment policy, accountability, teacher supply and distribution, and teacher recruitment, preparation, and retention.




How to Cite

Goe, L. (2002). The Distribution of Emergency Permit Teachers in California. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 10, 42.