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The present research work deals with the “paradoxical” relations between territory and education in Spain, taking as a reference space the Castilian-Leonese language that offers, based on national and international reports, fully internationally comparable educational levels. This “good education” presents significant room for improvement. The research team carried out 59 open interviews (to a sample of eight centers). Two types of actors have been interviewed: social and educational. The study is structured in two parts. A “policy” in which the challenges have been diagnosed from the SLR (Sistematic Literature Review) methodological approach and, a second, “pedagogical”, in which the treatment of oral sources has been carried out from the CCS (Comparative Case Study) (Bartlett and Vavrus). The results indicate that in the imaginary of the actors challenges appear that require a response (political and social). They refer to the working and training conditions of teachers, to resources and means, to the relationships between actors, to curricular adjustments. They also require reinforcing relations with the environment (socio-economic and institutional), the stability of educational policies, the trust and responsibility of and in education, a reinforcement of school and pedagogical autonomy and the improvement of the training of management teams.
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