Separate and Unequal – Title I and Teacher Quality




Title I, teacher quality, value-added, New York City, equitable funding


Research has shown that Title I’s “comparability” provision causes gaps in noncategorical per pupil teacher funding. Using a unique dataset that merges 2009-2010 New York City (NYC) Department of Education value-added scores, school finance data, and school demographic data, this study not only confirms that NYC Title I elementary schools received less noncategorical per pupil teacher funding than non-Title I elementary schools, but these schools also had lower quality teachers. This paper provides the first evidence of a negative relationship between noncategorical per pupil teacher funding and the percentage of below average teachers even when controlling for certain school demographics. If Title I elementary public schools in New York City have lower quality teachers, then the students that are served by these schools are not receiving the same quality of education as their peers. Changing the comparability provision in Title I funding would result in more equitable funding.


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Author Biography

Elizabeth Iris Rivera Rodas, Montclair State University

Assistant Professor

Department of Educational Foundations

College of Education and Human Services





How to Cite

Rivera Rodas, E. I. (2019). Separate and Unequal – Title I and Teacher Quality. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 27, 14.