Sustainability of education reforms: An investigation into the professional development component of USAID/Egypt Education Reform Program (ERP, 2004-2009)




education reform, teachers’ professional development, international assistance, sustainability of education reform, USAID/Egypt, Education Reform Program


The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) started its operations in Egypt in 1975. Its work on education development included supporting access and gender equity, community participation, professional development, and also extended to policy reforms. Education Reform Program (ERP) was one of USAID’s initiatives implemented between 2004 and 2009. The program intended to support the Egyptian Ministry of Education (MOE) with strategies to enhance a system-wide reform. It also piloted school-based reform in 256 schools across seven governorates. This study explores the sustainability of practices that were advocated as part of ERP’s professional development (PD) component. A qualitative approach was adopted to afford a better understanding of the long-term impact of ERP’s PD activities. Document analysis and semi-structured interviews were used as data collection tools with 38 participants (teachers, heads of training units, and administrators) in four selected schools. Participants were asked about the PD practices at their schools, and the sustainability of changes introduced as part of ERP. Results highlight varying degrees of continuity of practices across participating schools and individuals and offer implications for future consideration.


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Author Biographies

Alaa Badran, American University in Cairo

Alaa Badran received her MA degree in International and Comparative Education from the Graduate School of Education at the American University in Cairo, with a concentration in International Education Development and Policy. She is an education practitioner with experience in elementary education and teachers’ professional development.

Mustafa Toprak, American University in Cairo

Dr. Mustafa Toprak holds a PhD in educational administration. He is currently an Assistant Professor of educational administration at the Graduate School of Education, the American University in Cairo and is serving as the regional editor for Egypt for the digital book project run by Bloomsbury publications titled: “Education and Childhood Studies”. Dr. Toprak has widely published on behavior at school organizations. In particular, he has contributed to research evidence on concepts such as emotional intelligence and job satisfaction, positive psychological capital, emotional labor, managerial justice, managerial support, trust in manager, commitment to manager, intent-to-leave, and leadership styles. He also has published research on teachers’ roles in education reform, decision-making in centralized educational systems, and migrant students’ education.




How to Cite

Badran, A., & Toprak, M. (2020). Sustainability of education reforms: An investigation into the professional development component of USAID/Egypt Education Reform Program (ERP, 2004-2009). Education Policy Analysis Archives, 28, 129.