Sustainability of education reforms: An investigation into the professional development component of USAID/Egypt Education Reform Program (ERP, 2004-2009)

Alaa Badran, Mustafa Toprak


The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) started its operations in Egypt in 1975. Its work on education development included supporting access and gender equity, community participation, professional development, and also extended to policy reforms. Education Reform Program (ERP) was one of USAID’s initiatives implemented between 2004 and 2009. The program intended to support the Egyptian Ministry of Education (MOE) with strategies to enhance a system-wide reform. It also piloted school-based reform in 256 schools across seven governorates. This study explores the sustainability of practices that were advocated as part of ERP’s professional development (PD) component. A qualitative approach was adopted to afford a better understanding of the long-term impact of ERP’s PD activities. Document analysis and semi-structured interviews were used as data collection tools with 38 participants (teachers, heads of training units, and administrators) in four selected schools. Participants were asked about the PD practices at their schools, and the sustainability of changes introduced as part of ERP. Results highlight varying degrees of continuity of practices across participating schools and individuals and offer implications for future consideration.


education reform; teachers’ professional development; international assistance; sustainability of education reform; USAID/Egypt; Education Reform Program

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