Anticipating and Incorporating Stakeholder Feedback when Developing Value-Added Models


  • Ryan Balch Baltimore City Schools
  • Cory Koedel University of Missouri



teacher evaluation, value-added models, stakeholder engagement


State and local education agencies across the United States are increasingly adopting rigorous teacher evaluation systems. Most systems formally incorporate teacher performance as measured by student test-score growth, sometimes by state mandate. An important consideration that will influence the long-term persistence and efficacy of these systems is stakeholder buy-in, including buy-in from teachers. In this study we document common questions from teachers about value-added measures and provide research-based responses to these questions. The questions come from teachers in Baltimore City Public Schools, who are evaluated using a combined measure of which value-added is one component. We focus on teacher questions about value-added because value-added generates the most concern from teachers. We also connect teacher concerns about value-added to other components of the evaluation system, such as classroom observations, although at present these other components have not garnered as much attention from teachers. 


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Author Biographies

Ryan Balch, Baltimore City Schools

Ryan Balch was the director of teacher, principal, and school evaluation for Baltimore City schools from 2012-2014. During this time, he oversaw the creation and implementation of the district’s new systems of evaluation. Currently, Dr. Balch is the CEO of My Student Survey, a company that supports districts and states in the administration and development of student surveys of teacher practice. Ryan Balch completed his PhD in Education Policy at Vanderbilt University, where his dissertation focused on the development and validation of student surveys on teacher practice. He was the principal investigator for the student survey pilot of more than 15,000 students in seven districts as part of Race to the Top. Previously, Ryan worked as a science teacher and department chair for seven years in Georgia at Riverwood High School. He has a master’s degree in Science Education from Georgia State University and a B.A. in Psychology from Duke University.

Cory Koedel, University of Missouri

Cory Koedel is an associate professor of economics and public policy at the University of Missouri, Columbia. His research is in the areas of teacher quality and compensation, curriculum evaluation, school choice and the efficacy of higher education institutions. His work has been widely cited in top academic journals in the fields of economics, education and public policy, and he serves on several technical advisory panels related to school and teacher evaluations for school districts, state education agencies and non-profit organizations. Dr. Koedel was awarded the Outstanding Dissertation Award from the American Educational Research Association (Division L) in 2008, and in 2012 he received the Junior Scholar Award from the same group. He received his PhD in economics from the University of California, San Diego in 2007.




How to Cite

Balch, R., & Koedel, C. (2014). Anticipating and Incorporating Stakeholder Feedback when Developing Value-Added Models. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 22, 97.