Better integrating summative and formative goals in the design of next generation teacher evaluation systems




teacher evaluation, accountability, educational improvement, formative and summative assessment, self-determination theory, qualitative methods


In current teacher evaluation systems, the two main purposes of evaluation—accountability/goal accomplishment (summative) and professional growth/improvement (formative)—are often at odds with one another. However, they are not only compatible, but linking them within a unified teacher evaluation system may, in fact, be desirable. The challenge of the next generation of teacher evaluation systems will be to better integrate these two purposes in policy and practice. In this paper, we integrate the frameworks of Self-determination theory and Stronge’s Improvement-Oriented Model for Performance Evaluation. We use this integrated framework to critically examine teacher evaluation policy in Hawaii and Washington, D.C.—two distinctly different approaches to teacher evaluation—for the purposes of identifying a set of clear recommendations for improving the design and implementation of teacher evaluation policy moving forward.


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Author Biographies

Timothy G. Ford, University of Oklahoma

Dr. Ford examines the role of policy and school leadership in shaping teacher and leader working conditions and in supporting teachers’ and leaders’ psychological needs as learners.

Kim Hewitt, University of North Carolina at Greensboro

Dr. Hewitt research focuses on leadership preparation; instructional leadership, equity and social justice, and sustaining reform. She serves as director of the Principal Preparation for Excellence and Equity in Rural Schools (PPEERS) program, which involves a partnership with 12 rural districts.




How to Cite

Ford, T. G., & Hewitt, K. (2020). Better integrating summative and formative goals in the design of next generation teacher evaluation systems. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 28, 63.



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