Professional Accountability for Improving Life, College, and Career Readiness


  • Jon Snyder Stanford University
  • Travis Bristol Stanford University



professional accountability, education policy, teachers


This article builds on Darling-Hammond, Wilhoit, and Pittenger’s (2014) new paradigm on Accountability for College and Career Readiness by focusing on one of its three pillars—professional accountability. The article begins by offering a conceptual framework for professional accountability for improvement. Next, it highlights slices of four organizations whose improvements efforts serve as a model for professional accountability. Then the article provides an overview of what a complete system of professional accountability would require. The article ends with a narrative of a teacher’s career in an imagined future where school, district, state, and federal contexts are designed and provide resources for a cohesive constellation of policies, programs, and practices that increase learning for children, adults and the entire system. 


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Author Biographies

Jon Snyder, Stanford University

Dr. Jon Snyder is the Executive Director of the Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in Education. Prior to joining SCOPE, he had worked as a researcher and a teacher/educator at Teachers College; the National Center for the Restructuring of Education, Schools, and Teaching; the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future; the University of California, Santa Barbara; and as chief academic officer/dean of the College at Bank Street College of Education. He remains engaged in researching teacher learning, conditions that support teacher learning, and the relationships between teacher and student learning. 

Travis Bristol, Stanford University

Dr. Travis J. Bristol is a Research and Policy Fellow at the Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in Education. His research focuses on the intersection of race and gender in organizations. Specifically, Travis examines how policy levers used by local, state, national, and international actors influence teacher workplace experiences and retention, as well as student learning. His dissertation on Black male teachers’ pathways into the profession, experiences, and retention was awarded fellowships from the National Academy of Education/Spencer Foundation, the Ford Foundation, and the American Educational Research Association. 




How to Cite

Snyder, J., & Bristol, T. (2015). Professional Accountability for Improving Life, College, and Career Readiness. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 23, 16.



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