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This paper reviews state strategies for incorporating performance assessment in policy and practice. Specifically, the paper reviews the use of performance assessment in 12 states in the Innovation Lab Network, a group committed to developing systems of assessment that provide meaningful measures of college and career readiness. This review suggests that states relied on four central approaches for integrating performance assessment in state and local systems of assessment: 1) classroom purposes, 2) graduation requirement, 3) school accountability purposes, or 4) federal accountability. We review these approaches and the benefits and challenges associated with each strategy.